Wednesday, March 19, 2014

Nautical Compass - Maximus International -


compass is a navigational instrument that shows directions in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the Earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) – north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the "N" mark on the rose really points to the north. Frequently, in addition to the rose or sometimes instead of it, angle markings in degrees are shown on
the compass. North corresponds to zero degrees, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to showazimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation.
The magnetic compass was first invented as a device for divination as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty (since about 206 BC). The compass was used in Song Dynasty China by the military for navigational orienteering by 1040-1044, and was used for maritime navigation by 1111 to 1117.The use of a compass is,This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass.
recorded in Western Europe between 1187 and 1202, and in Persia in 1232.The dry compass was invented in Europe around 1300.

Types of compasses

There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles.[14] Simple compasses of this type show directions in a frame of reference in which the directions of the magnetic poles are due north and south. These directions are called magnetic north and magnetic south. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis of rotation is parallel with the earth's. The wheel's axis therefore points to the earth's rotational poles, and a frame of reference is used in which the directions of the rotational poles are due north and south. These directions are called true north andtrue south, respectively. The astrocompass works by observing the direction of stars and other celestial bodies.                                                                           
There are other devices which are not conventionally called compasses but which do allow the true cardinal directions to be determined. Some GPSreceivers have two or three antennas, fixed some distance apart to the structure of a vehicle, usually an aircraft or ship. The exact latitudes and longitudes of the antennas can be determined simultaneously, which allows the directions of the cardinal points to be calculated relative to the heading of the aircraft (the direction in which its nose is pointing), rather than to its direction of movement, which will be different if there is a crosswind. They are said to work "like a compass", or "as a compass".
Even a GPS device or similar can be used as compass, since if the receiver is being moved, even at walking pace, it can follow the change of its position, and hence determine the compass bearing of its direction of movement, and hence the directions of the cardinal points relative to its direction of movement. A much older example was the Chinese south-pointing chariot, which worked like a compass by directional dead reckoning. It was initialized by hand, possibly using astronomical observations e.g. of the Pole Star, and thenceforth counteracted every turn that was made to keep its pointer aiming in the desired direction, usually to the south. Watches and sundials can also be used to find compass directions. See their articles for details.
A recent development is the electronic compass which detects the direction without potentially fallible moving parts. This may use a fibre optic gyrocompass or a magnetometer. The magnetometer frequently appears as an optional subsystem built into hand-held GPS receivers and mobile phones. However, magnetic compasses remain popular, especially in remote areas, as they are relatively inexpensive, durable, and require no power supply.

Magnetic compass
The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north of a planet's magnetosphere. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north, south, east and west. Often, compasses are built as a stand alone sealed instrument with a magnetized bar or needle turning freely upon a pivot, or moving in a fluid, thus able to point in a northerly and southerly direction.
The compass greatly improved the safety and efficiency of travel,
especially ocean travel. A compass can be used to calculate heading, used with a sextant to calculate latitude, and with a marine chronometer to calculate longitude. It thus provides a much improved navigational capability that has only been recently supplanted by modern devices such as the Global Positioning System(GPS).